The work of Pictures for Schools contributing artists Gerda Rubinstein, Betty Rea and Elisabeth Frink in situ, outside the civic centre, in Harlow Old Town, and in the extensive Gibberd Garden, created by Frederick Gibberd, designer of the New Town, on the outskirts of Harlow.
I recently made a trip over to Leeds to see a new exhibition of works by Maurice de Sausmarez at the Stanley and Audrey Burton Gallery at the University of Leeds, held to mark the centenary of his birth and continuing until 20 February 2016.
De Sausmarez was closely involved in Pictures for Schools, serving on planning and selection committees and selling work through the exhibitions, as well as the Society for Education through Art (SEA). He took over as president of the SEA from 1968, before his early death at the age of 54 in 1969.
De Sausmarez also moved in the same kinds of social circles as Nan Youngman and other Pictures for Schools artists, and was a member of the Artists’ International Association (AIA), of which he was chairman in the 1940s, although his widow, the artist and colour specialist Jane de Sausmarez, told me that he didn’t want to have anything to do with politics after the war. I visited Jane in London earlier this year and she told me that he was good friends with Herbert Read and Betty Rea, and admired her as an artist. He also lived in a caravan at Peggy Angus’ home in Firle, Sussex, and made melon and ginger jam in return for paying rent. He was one of the many artistic and intellectual visitors to Firle to be painted by Angus. Jane met Maurice in 1960. She taught in the textiles department one day a week, under Constance Howard, who had malachite green hair. Howard’s work, along with other artists in the department, was very popular at Pictures for Schools and Jane recalls that people went to the Goldsmiths degree show especially for the textiles.
Like several of the other Pictures for Schools artists, de Sausmarez was involved in the Recording Britain project. He was also an influential figure in art education. His book Basic Design: the Dynamics of Visual Form, published in 1964, influenced the way art is taught in universities, and he taught in Leeds for many years. Jane pointed out several of his former students in the Pictures for Schools exhibition catalogues I showed her, including at Byam Shaw School of Drawing and Painting in London, where he was Principal in the 1950s.
Among the work on display at the Stanley and Audrey Burton Gallery are works shown with the AIA. These include ‘A Garden – God Wot!’, from 1939, which was shown at Picture Hire Gallery as part of the Everyman Prints series, a small, black and white zinc lithograph depicting an air raid shelter in a back garden. Another, ‘Red Cross Nurses, Long Liston Practices’, is a study for a painting in the AIA exhibition For Liberty.
There were also some pictures exhibited at Pictures for Schools in 1967, including ‘Faceted Still Life’ (1961/1962), a linear and fragmented still life. Most of the works in the exhibition are either still lifes or landscapes, depicting places in France and Italy as well as the coast of the North East, together with a few portraits. There is a noticeable contrast between those which are representational in a relatively straightforward way, and those which use colour, form, patterns, light and movement in a distinctive palette of purples, greens, yellows, oranges, pinks and blues to create varying degrees of abstraction. On display alongside the paintings were a number of studies, suggesting a process before which works became abstracted. Interestingly, some of the more the abstract works made their way into schools, including ‘Head Form’ and ‘Abstract’, both of which can still be borrowed today via the Artemis scheme.
Also on display were materials relating to de Sausmarez’s involvement in education. This included a pamphlet detailing ‘Talks for 6th Forms’, broadcast by the BBC to schools in Spring 1960. De Sausmarez was among the speakers, introducing the series with a lecture on ‘art and public’, with Carel Weight, Ceri Richards, Reg Butler and Denys Lasdun following, prior to a series introducing children to trade unions.
I was struck by De Sausmarez’s skill as both a draughtsman and a painter, and his distinctive style, and wondered why he is not a more widely known figure today. I hope that both this exhibition, and the accompanying catalogue, will help raise his profile and find him a new audience.
Whilst in Leeds I also stumbled upon a selection day for the Leeds picture hire scheme, which is open to the public. A selection of paintings and prints were propped up on chairs for perusal in a small room at Leeds Art Gallery, and could be taken home in special carry bags. It is amazing what you can get for £4 a month, including prints by Pictures for Schools artists Julian Trevelyan, John Addyman and Edwin la Dell, and it made me wish there were such schemes were more common.
A couple of weeks ago I went to London to visit Julian Rea, the son of the sculptor Betty Rea (a regular contributor to Pictures for Schools whose work is in the Derbyshire & Derby School Library and Museum Service among other collections), who was brought up by his mother and Pictures for Schools founder Nan Youngman in London and Cambridgeshire in the 1930s and 1940s.
The house is full of Nan Youngman’s paintings and drawings of different periods, from fairly large paintings of French and Welsh scenes to small drawings of the eastern coast of the UK, and Betty Rea’s drawings and sculptures. It also contains artwork by other members of their circle such as the Cambridge painter Elizabeth Vellacott, the sculptor John W Mills and some lovely, Cubist-style pencil drawings by Rea and Youngman’s friend Felicia Browne, who was the first British woman killed in the Spanish Civil War, as well as a painting by Thomas Swimmer that Rea himself purchased from a Pictures for Schools exhibition. I was able to get a great insight from Rea, along with other members of his family, into what Youngman and Rea were like as people, what inspired and motivated them, the types of creative, politicised social and professional circles they moved in, and the atmosphere and importance of the Pictures for Schools exhibitions.
I was able to see much other material related to Youngman’s personal and professional life. This included several handwritten drafts of the autobiography Youngman wrote in the last decade of her life in late-1980s, as well as correspondence relating to the OBE she was awarded in 1987, exhibition catalogues, press cuttings and even tributes given by friends and colleagues at her funeral. However, much of the material I liked best, as it gave me a real sense of Youngman’s character, was seemingly more minor. For example every Christmas Youngman produced colourful cartoons depicting the Rea family and other friends and pets as various pantomime characters, including one featuring Youngman asleep at the foot of a beanstalk – she had a real talent for caricature! I was also allowed to handle several stamps produced from original drawings by Youngman which were used to create funny Christmas cards showing Youngman as a different character each year, from a clown to a head and shoulders on a postage stamp. One of my favourite things I saw was a set of very small illustrations (sadly never used) which Youngman created for a book Henry Moore (a friend of Betty Rea’s who she had known since her days at the RCA, when she was a student and he was a student teacher) was writing for infant teachers. I found the drawings, which depicted the types of play, learning and creation children get up to when left to their own devices, from building structures to experimenting with paint and acting out role-play, utterly charming and incredibly evocative of the spirit and experience of childhood. They seem to fit perfectly with the type of educational environment and experience Pictures for Schools was part of, and promoted, where children were encouraged to express themselves and explore the world around them.
Last month I made a visit to sculptor John W Mills at his home of 47 years, Hinxworth Place in Hertfordshire, to follow up on correspondence via telephone and email regarding his involvement in the Pictures for Schools exhibitions and friendship with its founder, Nan Youngman. Mills started submitting sculptures and prints to Pictures for Schools as a student at the Royal College of Art in the late-1950s. Although he did not know Youngman when he first submitting artworks to Pictures for Schools, Mills later became a close friend of hers through his professional relationship and friendship with her partner, the sculptor Betty Rea. Mills shared his expertise on the ciment fondu technique for casting sculpture (something he has written books on) with Rea and visited and socialised at Rea and Youngman’s studios and home in Cambridge. In the early 1960s, Mills was invited to serve on the sculpture committee which selected artworks for Pictures for Schools exhibitions alongside fellow sculptors Elisabeth Frink and Willi Soukop. He was also on the planning committee for Pictures for Schools between 1965 and 1970. This comprised a small group of artists together with educators, a local authority education officer and the scheme’s administrators, which met annually.
Hinxworth is close to the borders of Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire, and a twenty minute drive from Cambridge. Set in three acres of land, the grounds contain Mills’ studios (Mills is still actively undertaking commissions), as well as a collection of his work on display outside; Mills welcomes visits from schools, who come to see his work in the grounds. I also met Mills’ wife of sixty years, Jo, a former ballet dancer, and it became clear that both John and Jo were part of a highly sociable network of artists and other creative people which centred around Youngman and Rea’s base at Paper Mills in Cambridge and consisted of artists, writers and academics living all across East Anglia. I showed the Mills a photo of Mills’ small bronze sculpture ‘Lion in a Cage’, which is part of the Derbyshire collection of original artworks for schools, as well as Pictures for Schools exhibition catalogues for 1967 and 1969 (both years Mills contributed) to trigger memories. The couple recognised a high proportion of the names in the Pictures for Schools catalogues as friends, peers, colleagues and former tutors of Mills, describing the roster of artists as ‘quite a line-up’. The couple made exclamations and comments upon seeing the names of certain artists. These included Fred Brill, who was Principal of Chelsea School of Art in the 1960s, Cambridge painter Julia Ball, Mary Hoad, Principal of St Albans School of Art (where Mills also taught for many years), who was described as ‘a great friend of Nan Youngman’, Arnold van Praag, described as ‘a great friend of mine who became a very influential painter at Camberwell’, Ralph Brown, who Mills says was grouped together with the Kitchen Sink School, and Carel Weight, who taught Mills at Junior Art School in Hammersmith from the age of 14.
I found the visit really useful to add colour and context to my understanding of the post-war art world. Mills particularly emphasised the word ‘post-war’ in my project title, saying it was ‘the key thing’; studying at art school as a teenager among artists who had returned from fighting in the war as ‘very serious people’ clearly had a profound effect on him, as well as his emphasis on using figurative, realist sculpture as a form of storytelling and means of communication. I also enjoyed hearing more about Mills’ time as a resident of Digswell Arts Trust, a large house in Welwyn Garden City where Cambridgeshire Director of Education Henry Morris established a trust for sculptors, painters, potters and weavers which provided subsidised accommodation and studio space and aimed to remedy some of the aesthetic deficiencies Morris saw in the new towns which were built after the war.
It was also interesting to hear how Mills saw Pictures for Schools as fitting into the post-war art world – he explained that it was a decidedly populist exhibition, which aimed to have a wide appeal, something which was sometimes at odds with emerging trends in the art world in the 1960s. We also discussed how it compared with other exhibitions Mills took part in such as Young Contemporaries and the Royal Academy summer shows, and Pictures for Schools emerged as a series of exhibitions which was both very well respected and well-organised.
I also got a sense of approaches and attitudes towards art education at the time when Pictures for Schools was in operation, as well as gaining a more rounded knowledge of aspects of Pictures for Schools I had discovered through archival research. For instance, it was really interesting to hear from Mills about the process of selecting sculptures, and the criteria which were used to decide which sculptures were appropriate – Mills recalls that there was very much an emphasis on quality and craftsmanship, sometimes more so than the content or subject matter of the sculpture and what it portrayed. It was also interesting to discover that each selection committee – whether for sculpture, prints, painting or embroidery – was responsible for how the work was hung or displayed, and that artists were given a high degree of freedom by Youngman in these aspects of the exhibition.
I also got to know more about what Youngman was like as a person, and what influenced her, for example Mills said she had a great sense of fun and loved to share dirty jokes, but was also committed to her painting practice and cared passionately about art education. She also emerges as a figure who was well-liked by different sets of people. Mills paints a picture of Youngman and Rea’s base at Paper Mills as being an open, supportive environment which acted as a venue for many discussions around art and education.
One of the most important things I got from talking to Mills was a sense of how interconnected the networks of artists and educators involved in Pictures for Schools were, for example through studying and teaching at educational institutions, but also through membership of organisations such as the Artists’ International Association and living in various geographical concentrations such as East Anglia/Cambridge/Essex. I also got a strong sense of collaboration between sculptors – of sharing techniques, and helping each other with the production of sculptures – as well as a side to Pictures for Schools that was highly sociable.
After speaking to people who were in the past involved in school museum services, I wanted to visit one of the few which is still in action to see first-hand the type of materials which are in a county council collection and how it operates. Last week I made a trip to Derby to see the collection of original artworks for schools held in the Derby & Derbyshire School Library Service. This service was started in 1936, with a grant from the Carnegie Trust, and was for many years run by Museum Organiser Barbara Winstanley under the Derbyshire Director of Education J. Longland. In the post-war period, artworks were chosen with the assistance of Philip James, who was involved with the Arts Council and its predecessor CEMA (The Committee for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts), artist Mary Hoad, and artist and educator Evelyn Gibbs.
Barbara Winstanley was clearly a pivotal figure in the history of the development of school loan collections, as well as to the Derbyshire collection. She wrote a handbook for school-loan services for the Museums Association in 1959, and the museum service’s annual reports reveal that representatives from local authorities all over the county (and even around the world) visited the Derbyshire collection to see how they could achieve something similar (watch a 1962 clip from Midland Montage, featuring the Museum Service, on the Midland Archive for Central England website). Furthermore her Director of Education, J. Longland, wrote the foreword for one of the Pictures for Schools exhibition catalogues, showing the high regard in which the Derbyshire model was held. Winstanley’s vision continues to inspire those responsible for running the service today, who “try to stick to her ethos of maintaining real materials for real people”.
Having moved since its early days elsewhere in the city, the collection is housed on the first floor of a big, grand, ornate old girls’ school building built in 1917 (which, it is fair to say, has seen better days) and is now combined with a library service. The School Museum Service was closed and mothballed in 1990; paintings were stored in the old school gym, which can now only be entered with a hard hat on. Luckily those who ran it believed it was an important service to keep and caused enough of a ruckus that it was reopened in 1993 (partly, perhaps, to keep them quiet). Today, the service is run as a traded service which must compete for schools’ attention and funding with other services such as school meals. Schools subscribe a couple of hundred pounds a year for use of the museum service (paying a slightly higher price for the inclusion of paintings), then a very small sum per term per painting.
Rather surreally hundreds of framed paintings and prints are stacked in the tiled cubicles of the school toilets (one even still has the ubiquitous ‘so and so loves so and so’ graffiti on the ceiling!), ranging from a highly-stylised Henry Moore hand-printed textile showing a reclining figure, to paintings and prints by famous figures of British post-war art including Jacob Epstein and Elisabeth Frink, to graphic architectural prints by Edward Bawden, to oils by Pictures for Schools founder Nan Youngman. The collection is strong on prints by Clifford Webb, as well as Ronald Pope, who lived in Derbyshire and collaborated with architect Basil Spence on artworks for cathedrals. Many of the paintings and prints depict local scenes, or geological or architectural details of the landscape such as rock faces, roads or mines. A minority are entirely abstract. One of my favourites was a large, busy, brightly-coloured lithograph by Eduardo Paolozzi (though it dates from slightly later than the period covered by Pictures for Schools), which draws the eye back again and again to explore different details of a collage-style composition which references everything from mosaics to idealised, children’s book-style imagery of children to technology, the space race and pop advertising. Paintings, drawings, fabric collages and sculptures are also dotted on display about the building, from John Lally’s undulating, abstracted, pastel-hued take on Derbyshire landmark Haddon Hall to a lovely 1960 textile piece in autumnal shades of brown and grey by Sadie M Allen, depicting in detail a lively, hilly view of a traditional Welsh village.
In a story now familiar from elsewhere, artwork by Lowry was sold off long ago, but the majority of the collection remains. After the painting collection’s listing on the BBC/Public Catalogue Foundation’s website Your Paintings, which has compiled photographs of all of the country’s publicly-owned oil paintings, a number of artists have been in touch with stories about how their artwork was acquired, and in some cases now-elderly artists have visited the collection to see artworks they made at the start of their careers, after which their style changed a lot. The service is also contacted by organisers of retrospectives of certain artists, as well as relatives and collectors, and lends paintings to galleries and universities in the county.
However, it was the sculpture collection which I found especially interesting, containing wooden, stone, resin, concrete and bronze objects by artists including Peter Peri, Willi Soukop and Betty Rea, all of whom are known for their work for schools and public places. Housed next to the service’s collection of museum objects such as models, animal specimens and stuffed birds, each sculpture is contained within its own made-to-size wooden box, created when the service had in-house carpenters, with a carry handle and sliding front panel. Each sculpture stands on a wooden base which slides snugly into the box. I wasn’t prepared for how small the sculptures would be: most were on an intimate, hand-holdable scale that seemed to invite close and tactile interaction. Though some were abstract compositions, or offered fairly straightforward representations of animals, several depicted humble, familiar subjects – a young girl sitting forward on a chair, a grandmother combing a granddaughter’s hair and, most evocatively, a ‘little girl shouting’ – and it was clear that these were well-crafted, thoughtful objects showing a high level of workmanship.
Service Manager Denise Pritchard is incredibly passionate about the collection and service, and proud of its innovative heritage. Ahead of my visit she had found me out the boxes of record cards listing individual works in the collection, their artist and medium, as well as their method of acquisition. This revealed that, as well as buying directly from the artist, the museum service had acquired artworks from organisations such as the Crafts Centre of Great Britain, Arts & Crafts Society and Embroiderer’s Guild, shops such as Fortnum and Mason and Liberty, another museum service, Nottingham, and exhibitions such as the Contemporary Hanging Exhibition. Really helpfully, Denise had pulled out all the cards relating to works acquired through Pictures for Schools and Pictures for Welsh Schools exhibitions (Denise noticed a strong Welsh theme in the collection, for no apparent reason – could this partly be attributed to buying work from Pictures for Welsh Schools exhibitions?), which numbered well over 100. This policy of visiting exhibitions, guilds and artists’ studios continues today, and the museum service is still a patron of, often local, artists. Denise had also gathered together the museum service’s annual reports, which referred to Barbara Winstanley being on the Pictures for Schools selection committee, and mentioned visits made to Pictures for Schools exhibitions and purchases being made there.
Although a good proportion of schools in Derbyshire still subscribe to the School Museum Service, unfortunately it appears that schools are reluctant to borrow original works of art even though Denise is clear it is “something they can get so much from”. Primary schools tend to make more use of the service than secondary schools and, although sculpture is more popular than paintings and prints, the most popular artefacts tend to be things like African masks which can be used as drawing aids. By the 1980s, the service was tending to send out more reproductions of classic artworks such as paintings by Monet than original artworks, which Denise considers unsatisfactory because “they all a had similar shade of green going through them, and everything was reduced to the same size, which would make you think artists only paint in one certain size … schools didn’t really want them and they were pleased when we came and got them”. Today, schools are concerned about where to hang original paintings, and about insurance and security, and there is a lack of knowledge about how to use original works of art. Where schools do make use of the artworks, it is often due to an innovative head – even when individual art teachers are interested, it can often be a tough job to convince heads to release school funds. This is a situation which Denise thinks will only get worse as the curriculum changes and schools are forced to focus on other sides of the curriculum; art, she says, needs to be promoted as benefiting all sorts of areas of education. Part of the problem is that some of aspects of the collection are now dated; nowadays museum materials are often offered as part of a bigger package containing extra, printed material. Although paintings are interesting and fascinating in their own right, Denise thinks there is a need to offer in-service training on how to ‘use’ paintings. Schools need to be encouraged to use artworks which will capture children’s attention and prompt them to look and gain an understanding of what the artists did and why they did it.
Denise fears that the collection will be dismantled and no longer be together as a collection with a history, but hopes that future solutions could include touring exhibitions or lending artworks to local businesses. However, there are still examples of schools making good use of the collection, including a recent exhibition where school students visited and selected artworks from the service based on five defined themes.
This one-day conference brought together academics, writers and representatives of bodies including the Twentieth Century Society and English Heritage to discuss the issues surrounding the discovery, rescue, restoration and future of twentieth century murals, from recognising their value as artworks and analysing their subject matter to giving them protection by applying for listed status. It also outlined some of the difficulties facing murals, such as what to do with them in cases where they have been saved but their ‘host building’ has been demolished.
The conference was introduced by Nick Rampley, Vice-Principal of Morley College, who introduced the various murals at Morley College and described the difficulties faced during in their existence, from artworks being destroyed by enemy bombing during the second world war to the Arts Council giving meagre funds for their replacement
Professor Claire Willsdon from the University of Glasgow then gave some context to mural painting in Britain, arguing that there is no continuous tradition of mural-painting in the country. She did, however, identify several nineteenth century examples, such as murals in Westminster Cathedral, Oxford Union and Manchester town hall, as key antecedents to the twentieth century mural and suggested that there was a trend in mural painting towards making meaning out of the past and ‘inventing tradition’ to reinforce and justify the present. Dr Alan Powers went on to ask why murals are so neglected in art history, describing the problem of gaps in knowledge left by lost and forgotten murals and acknowledging that art historians can’t write about art that isn’t there. It was suggested that after the war art represented everyday life – perhaps as a soothing effect.
Later, Dr Margaret Garlake explained that murals were reinvented post-1945 as part of the extensive reconstruction programme, asking ‘what were murals for in reconstructing society?’ She suggested that murals ‘decorate buildings and describe what they are for’, and defined their primary purpose as being to ‘take you into another space beyond where you are standing’. She referenced artist Victor Pasmore, who in a 1951 article for the Listener, talked of a new language and form of art appropriate for a reconstructed society. By the 1950s, she said, modernism had been ‘naturalised’. Garlake focused on several murals, from Francis Carr’s textured mural for a school, which was designed to be touched, to murals for London County Council schools by Robert Adams and Robyn Denus, as well as those by artists such as Victor Pasmore, who saw murals as ‘an extension of their private practice’, doing away with earlier emphasis on narrative. She also discussed the role of patrons, who ‘acknowledged art as fundamental to civilisation’, and identified that bodies such as the LCC tended to commission younger artists, who were both cheaper and often more inventive.
Dr Lynn Pearson, who has extensively researched and documented public art, meanwhile, spoke about the problems facing the future of murals, asking ‘what are we going to do with all these old murals?’, even when they can be saved. Dr Jeremy Howard from the Decorated School network, likewise, touched on the issues surrounding the restoration of old murals, suggesting that restoring artworks in schools can create a museum-style atmosphere or a ‘temple of art’. Henriette Billings, Conservation Advisor for the Twentieth Century Society, and Dr Roger Bowdler, Head of Designation for English Heritage, then shared examples of recent attempts – both successful and unsuccessful – by the two organisations to save twentieth century murals, by artists including William Mitchell, often in collaboration. They shared some characteristics that make murals unique and interesting, even if they are on otherwise ordinary buildings.
Andy Ellis from the Public Catalogue Foundation wrapped up the day by sharing the Your Paintings project, which has photographed and created an online catalogue of all the nation’s thousands of publicly owned works in oil and acrylic. He said that 80 per cent of the paintings are in store, and that around two thirds have never been photographed before. The project has uncovered new information about many of the paintings which was not previously known. Members of the public are invited to tag paintings in the collection, share favourite paintings through social media networks, and contribute any special knowledge they have about a particular painting. It is hoped that this can eventually be expanded into a form of ‘citizen curating’ where members can rate paintings and say which paintings they would like to come out of store. Ellis also said that in future, funding permitting, the project would like to expand into other art forms such as sculpture and, potentially, murals. Another plan is to create a ‘Masterpieces in Schools’ programme, which would lend schools an artwork from the catalogue for the day, together with a curator.
Questions from the audience included the role of networks such as the Artists International Association which, it was suggested, gave help to refugee artists arriving in Britain, as well as the status of artworks such as graffiti (there was some debate over this, however a distinction was made between murals and graffiti that murals are commissioned and expected to remain in situ, whereas graffiti is by its nature ephemeral and temporary). In the audience was Brian Whitton, who shared his memories of working with Nan Youngman on the Pictures for Schools exhibition at Whitechapel Gallery in 1952-53, for a nominal sum. He was a schoolboy in Wimbledon at the time and was introduced to Youngman through a schoolfriend who was living with a good friend of hers named Mrs Baker (Mrs Baker died around 2005, ten years after Youngman). Whitton recalled that artists dropped their work off at the gallery over a period of 2-3 days, for selection by a committee including Youngman, and thinks some of them were famous although he can’t remember their names. He also suggested that there are some holdings of Betty Rea, a friend of Youngman’s, in Cambridge.
The conference was valuable because it introduced several high-profile writers and researchers on public art and murals in Britain, who discussed the social role played by public artworks in the twentieth century as well as how they fitted into the post-war reconstruction process, from being included in high-profile exhibitions such as the Festival of Britain to their incorporation into everyday buildings such as schools. Murals were also linked to ideas such as modernity and citizenship. In addition, the conference highlighted some of the issues facing researchers looking at artworks of the period, in particular the lack of status often conferred on these types of artworks, and shared what is being done to preserve these artworks for the future. Of particular interest was the paper on the Your Paintings website, as it introduced the idea of ‘citizen curating’, as opposed to relying on ‘expert’ knowledge; the project allows people to interact with publicly-owned paintings. Also of interest was the ‘Masterpieces for Schools’ scheme being proposed as an extension of the Your Paintings project, which would allow children to experience artworks first-hand. It was interesting that Pictures for Schools was brought up during the question and answers session by Pauline Lucas, who has written on associated artists Nan Youngman and Evelyn Gibbs, and a useful opportunity to meet someone (Brian Whitton) who was involved in administering the scheme – if only in a very small way.