I recently went to the launch of a new exhibition at the National Football Museum in Manchester showcasing the museum’s art collection, which has been developed with funding from the National Lottery Heritage Fund.
Peri was one of several artists who exhibited at Pictures for Schools whose work has been acquired by the museum; football, particularly local and amateur matches, was one of the aspects of everyday life captured in the pictures shown at Pictures for Schools and bought by local education authorities for school loan collections (see Carel Weight’s lively ‘Village Cup Tie’, purchased by the London County Council, and apparently later sold to the football museum, although not on display in this exhibition and Fred Uhlman’s atmospheric painting of a game on a winter evening, recently sold at auction as part of the disposal of Hertfordshire County Council’s art collection). Like many of the artists at Pictures for Schools, as a member of the Artists’ International Association he was interested in depicting and reflecting relatable aspects of people’s lives, and presenting his art in places that was familiar and accessible to them.
The exhibition encompassed a wide variety of styles and genres, from Lowry’s iconic images of northern life, to delicate illustration by Paul Nash, to contemporary British artists such as Rose Wylie and digital artworks, to fashion and textiles, to vintage posters and advertising, to portraits of footballers and artworks by famous footballers such as George Best, and even a sculpture by Piccasso.
Far from the glitz of today’s game, with its superstar footballers on multi-million pound salaries, many of the works I liked best depicted the quieter, more personal aspect of the game and its individual and collective meanings to people as part of their sense of identity, leisure, routine, community and belonging: crowds huddled loyally in the cold of a snowy day, as in Alistair Grant’s lithograph ‘Snow at Stamford Bridge’, or behind the scenes of the game as in the Mass-Observation documentary photographer Humphrey Spender’s 1930s images of changing rooms, which suggested some of the tension and anticipation of the game.
Mid-twentieth century British art was particularly well-represented in the exhibition. I was interested to find out that several of the works had been exhibited in the Football and the Fine Arts exhibition, held in 1953, and organised by the Arts Council of Great Britain and the Football Association in order to mark the latter’s 90th anniversary. One of the highlights was the Great Bardfield artist Michael Rothenstein’s prize-winning etching and aquatint ‘Moment of Victory’, an abstract set of shapes which appeared to represent little in a literal sense, but suggested movement and celebration. Another highlight was the robotic stacked shapes of surrealist painter Ithell Colquhoun’s colourful oil painting ‘The Game of the Year’, dating from the same year as the Football and the Fine Arts exhibition.
Football Is Art is at the National Football Museum until Sunday 27 October: www.nationalfootballmuseum.com/whatson/football-is-art/
This week I took advantage of travelling down south on family business to visit the Tate Archive on my way back. During this visit, I spent some time looking at an extensive photographic collection, which mainly consisted of photographs of Nan Youngman’s work, both in colour and in black and white. Although I had seen Youngman’s work reproduced in books, and several original paintings and sketches, I was really struck by the volume and diversity of her work, including early portraits of her friends and acquaintances, a wartime sketch of an air-raid shelter, later, slightly dreamy, hazy seascapes in pastel hues capturing children and families playing, paintings of technology such as radio telescopes, and striking paintings and drawings of industrial scenes, including one of a kiln belching black smoke in Stoke-on-Trent, a painting of a steelworks, a derelict-looking pigeon loft captured in sharp detail and one work depicting a traditional, small-scale house incongruously nestled next to a huge gas tower, as well as some touching drawings and paintings of family life and a photograph of a mural at Youngman and Rea’s Cambridge home the Hawks, painted by Youngman, Rea and Elizabeth Vellacott, inspired by a restaurant garden in France. It was also great to discover a folder of photographs of Youngman’s Christmas cards – including one casting herself as a mischievous pirate in 1985, when she would have been nearly eighty – as well as of Christmas pantomimes, comic strips (‘comichawks’, based on Christmas at her home at the Hawks near Cambridge) and limericks inspired by the Rea family (‘Hawkericks’).
I also saw some photographs of Nan Youngman at her retrospective exhibition at the Minories in Colchester in 1971 (although, interestingly, the press release for the show, and newspaper cuttings, all started by highlighting Youngman’s work as an educationalist, often with reference to her relationship to Marion Richardson and then Pictures for Schools, before moving on to discuss her work as a painter). Also tucked in among the photos were press cuttings relating to the 1992 exhibition Ten decades of women artists, curated by Katy Deepwell, which focused on ten artists born between 1897 and 1906, showing how they had had to fit the production of art around family ties and asking why women had been marginalised in the study of art history. As well as Barbara Hepworth, the exhibition included Nan Youngman and Betty Rea, as well as the art educator Evelyn Gibbs and Youngman and Rea’s friend from Artists’ International Association days, Mary Adshead (apparently less well-known than her husband, Stephen Bone – both were regular Pictures for Schools contributors), and there was extensive press coverage, both locally and nationally, of Youngman’s involvement in the exhibition.
I also spent some time in the Tate Library, looking at four exhibition catalogues for Pictures for Schools exhibitions which took place elsewhere in the country than the longstanding series in London and Wales. Three of these related to exhibitions held at the Laing Art Gallery and Museum in Newcastle Upon Tyne in 1956-58, which were direct spin-offs of the London exhibitions, organised by the North East Branch of the Society for Education through Art, in whose name Pictures for Schools was organised. Although far smaller in scale – they contained only 45-50 pictures and 8-10 sculptures each time, along with textiles such as printed wall hangings – they replicated some aspects of the London exhibitions such as asking children to vote for their favourite work, with encouraging children to form their own opinions on modern art a stated aim of the exhibitions. The exhibitions also explicitly set out to have a ‘local character’, with artists living and working in the area well-represented, as well as, intriguingly, a section dedicated to ‘Costume designs for ‘Northumberland teachers’ opera group’ production of Prince Igor held at the Theatre Royal, 1957′. It was interesting to see Richard Hamilton and Harry Thubron represented in the first exhibition, as both were associated with the Basic Design courses being developed in Newcastle and elsewhere in the North East. Some other names, such as Sadie Allen, an embroidery artist, I recognised from the catalogues of the London Pictures for Schools exhibitions, although most were unknown to me. Like its London counterparts, the work seemed to be dominated by still-lifes and landscapes, often based on the mundane, industrial or everyday, such as a brick factory, furnace slag heaps, docks, old men and a bus stop.
It was more difficult to gauge the relationship between the Pictures for Schools exhibition held at the Midland Group Gallery in Nottingham in 1963 and the London exhibitions. Although works had been borrowed from directors of London galleries, including the AIA Gallery, for the exhibition, no reference was made to the London exhibitions in the catalogues. However, regular Pictures for Schools contributors such as Mary Fedden, Sandra Blow, Fred Uhlam and Philip Sutton were represented, along with Nottingham painter and gallerist Dorothie Field, who had been among Nan Youngman’s students at Highbury Hill High School and went on to receive renown as a socialist realist painter. The exhibition was divided into two parts – more costly invited works, and members’ works. Interestingly, a tiny minority of the works could also be hired. My interest was also piqued by an invitation at the back of the catalogue to a discussion entitled ‘Children as patrons’, featuring painters Michael Granger and Dennis Hawkins, and sculptor LR Rogers, at which questions were welcomed. However, it was unclear whether the exhibition was a regular occurrence, or a one-off.
Last week I spent a day and a half browsing Nan Youngman’s papers in the special collections at the University of Reading. Nan Youngman was the founder of Pictures for Schools and, as an artist and art teacher, she was heavily involved in both the Artists International Association and then the Society for Education in Art (SEA). The collection (or at least the parts I saw, which wasn’t a huge proportion of it) was concerned mainly with the history, development and documentation of Pictures for Schools over its two decades-plus existence through correspondence, scripts, exhibition catalogues, photographs and press cuttings. I had been unsure of the date when Pictures for Schools finished, although I had suspected 1969 as I hadn’t seen any references to it in archive/gallery collections after that year, and correspondence between Youngman and the president of SEA revealed that, although 1969’s exhibition was the most successful yet, Pictures for Schools was forced to draw to a close due to the difficulty of finding a venue — the Royal Academy, where the exhibition was held in preceding years, massively increased its charges for hiring rooms, a lack of financial commitment from the Arts Council, who had previously guaranteed the exhibitions against loss, and increasing financial pressures on schools at the time.
I started with an oversize scrapbook entitled ‘Nan Youngman’s Pictures for Schools file’, which contained exhibition catalogues and several pages of press cuttings per show documenting the Pictures for Schools exhibitions which took place between 1947 and 1966. This gave me a really good sense of the public profile of Pictures for Schools: it appears to have received considerable press coverage, not just in specialist arts, culture and education publications, but in the national press, publications related to specific sections of society such as the Daily Worker and Jewish and Christian newspapers, and local newspapers, who often highlighted artists from their local area who had submitted or sold work through the show, and visits and acquisitions by local education authorities and particular schools. Among the writers were John Berger who, as well as submitting paintings to Pictures for Schools, wrote praising the initiative in the New Statesman, and several articles by broadsheet art critic Eric Newton who I believe may have acted as an advisor to Directors of Education in local authorities. As well as previewing and publicising Pictures for Schools, and reiterating the organisers’ aims of improving children’s standards of taste and judgement by helping create a stimulating environment in schools, press coverage often made a lot of children’s selections of their favourite work in the show: each year, child visitors to Pictures for Schools were given questionnaires and asked to vote for their five favourite works of art in the exhibition (broken down into girls’ favourites, boys’ favourites and overall favourites), which were then shown in a special section of the exhibition the following year. Many press reports were concerned with the question of choosing artworks for children, and the success of the selection panel in maintaining a balance between artworks which did not go beyond children’s levels of visual and emotional understanding, and at the same time ensuring that artists did not patronise or ‘talk down’ to children in their style or subject matter. The general consensus was that Pictures for Schools accomplished this with a high level of success, with some critics even praising Pictures for Schools as one of the best group exhibitions and displays of contemporary modern art of the year. However, several writers expressed concerns that Pictures for Schools relied too much on social realism, and did not show much in the way of more challenging abstract art.
Depressingly, after 1966 the next batch of press cuttings date from the 1990s, and concern local and national press coverage of lost, stolen, damaged and misplaced artworks in schools and mismanagement of local authority and county art collections in places such as West Yorkshire and Leicestershire. Youngman estimated that 10 per cent of education authorities bought work through Pictures for Schools exhibitions, and snippets of information in the collection suggest that among these were: West Riding, Nottinghamshire, Hull, Cambridgeshire, Derbyshire, London County Council, Croydon, Manchester, Oxford City Education Committee, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, Essex, Kent, West Sussex, Middlesex, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Worcestershire, City of Gloucester, Coventry, West Bromwich, Shropshire, Northumberland, Lancashire, Cumberland, Durham, Carlisle (and, in Wales, Glamorgan, Flintshire, Merthyr Tydfil and Monmouthshire, and in Scotland, Ross and Cromarty, Argyll, Sutherland, Banffshire, Midlothian, Fife, Edinburgh and Dunbartonshire). The Derbyshire, Cambridgeshire and Leicestershire collections still exist in some form and are listed on the BBC’S Your Paintings website which catalogues all of the country’s publicly-owned oil paintings. But, online and through email at least, it is hard to find any reference let alone any information about any other local education authority or council art collections separate from gallery and museum collections, which begs the question: if these collections existed, what happened to them, where are they now and who is responsible for them?
I was also intrigued elsewhere in the collection by several typewritten scripts and references relating to television and radio broadcasts featuring Pictures for Schools, including a transcript of the BBC’s Observation Post from May 1947, presented by Richard Bennett and featuring art teacher Vera Rambaut discussing Pictures for Schools, Elizabeth Ayrton visiting Pictures for Schools for Woman’s Hour in February 1956, an unnamed TV script dating from around 1960 featuring Nan Youngman on Pictures for Schools, a 1960s transcript of The Critics covering a debate on Pictures for Schools which took place at Whitechapel Gallery between somebody (unnamed) Allen, Malcolm Muggeridge, Denis Mathews, Philip Hope Wallace, Dilys Powell and Peter De Francia, a BBC External Services production from 1964 hosted by Henry Swanzy and an appearance by Nan Youngman on the BBC’s regional news programme ‘Town and Around’ in 1965.
Another file related to Pictures for Welsh Schools, which took place at various venues across Wales, from libraries and colleges to the National of Museum of Wales, between 1951 and at least the late-1980s, and an attempt to initiate Pictures for Scottish Schools (in the event it appears that only one exhibition was held, in the mid-1960s). These items included exhibition catalogues, artists’ notes and preview invitations, and it was interesting to see the relationship between Nan Youngman and Pictures for Schools in England, and the versions of Pictures for Schools held in Wales and Scotland. Although Nan Youngman was involved in these exhibitions, including helping select artists and artworks, and there was crossover between artists represented in the London, Wales and Scotland exhibitions, they were administered more locally under the guidance of national art galleries in Scotland and Wales.
Correspondence between Nan Youngman and the Arts Council reveals that a selection of artworks from Pictures for Schools, too (generally easily-transportable paintings), toured following the London exhibitions to regional galleries in places such as Plymouth, Cirencester, Bolton, Keighley and Hull. Another minor but interesting piece of correspondence was a letter from a young girl at a school in London, who wrote to Nan Youngman following a class visit to Pictures for Schools expressing her enjoyment of the exhibition (the back page of the letter showed pencil drawings of her favourite artworks in the show).
I finally had chance to read an elusive dissertation by Nick Arnfield, written at the University of Manchester in 1985 at undergraduate or Master’s level and presented to the Department of Art Gallery and Museum Studies. Arnfield combined archival research (I recognised several of the items referred to in the dissertation, which are now in the Nan Youngman collection) with interviews with people involved with Pictures for Schools, including Nan Youngman and Eric Woodward from the Schools Museum Service in the West Riding of Yorkshire (Woodward is now 86, and I am going to meet with him tomorrow at the National Arts Education Archive at Yorkshire Sculpture Park where he volunteers one day a week). The dissertation was annotated with comments, presumably by Nan Youngman, where she agreed, disagreed or had additions to his observations about the scheme. Arnfield contextualised Pictures for Schools with a brief history of loan schemes for schools, including the nineteenth century museum loan services of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Liverpool Museum and Sheffield City Museum, and the establishment of county art collections, assisted by financial support from the Carnegie Trust from the 1930s. He concluded the dissertation with a section on the situation of art education in the mid-1980s, the survival, status, adaptation and use of collections such as those built up by local education authorities in the post-war period through Pictures for Schools, and economic and curricular pressures on schools which threatened the place of art in the school day. Arnfield took issue with the writing of Herbert Read, and his notions of artworks in schools as static objects which conferred benefits on the students through mere ‘osmosis’, focusing largely on the life and career of Nan Youngman and the links and networks of artists, educators and teachers Youngman built up around her which allowed Pictures for Schools to thrive for twenty-two years. Interestingly, despite much reference to Pictures for Schools in the Society for Education in Art’s journal Athene, and prominent references to the Society both on exhibition catalogues and in press reports, Arnfield suggests that the SEA always played a background role in the initiation, administration and development of the exhibitions, with Youngman driving the exhibitions from the start.
Among the most illuminating content in the collection was photographs of Pictures for Schools exhibitions, dating mostly from the early-1960s, which gave a glimpse into the selection and hanging process, as well as a sense of what the exhibitions were like for visitors and the variety of the work on show. Photographs of artworks ranged from the crisp, technically-accurate realism of Carel Weight’s 1963 Street Scene, the impressionistic landscape painting of Gilbert Mason and the fluid motion of Jon Patterson’s 1964 oil painting Fairground Horses to the cartoon-like rockets in Bill Maynard’s 1966 painting the Planet, the rugged relief of John Addyman’s 1964 ceramic Rock Face, the organic, smooth-worn forms of Willi Soukop, the delicate embroideries of Eirian Short and the recognisable, serene figures and expressions of children cast in Betty Rea’s sculptures Standing Girl (1963) and After School (1966). Artworks are shown hung on top of each other in a crowded, slightly-old fashioned manner that reminded me of the way in which collections of historic, important artworks are shown off in the living rooms of country houses, but the photographs are brought to life by the appearance of children, who crowd around paintings in discussion and point at particular artworks or objects, appear to debate the meaning of more abstract, non-representational sculptures, turn their heads to try and get the best angle on unfamiliar forms, cluster in conversation and are captured with pen in mouth, questionnaires in hand and deep in concentration.